R. M. Nadkarni, C. L. Kusik and H. P. Heissner, "Method of removing arsenic and antimony from Copper Ore Concentrate", U. S. Patent 3, 911,073, Oct. 7, 1975. Fundamental Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy Hydrometallurgical methods can be employed for treatment of gold, arsenic, antimony, tin and mercury containing materials, concentrates and ores as well as complex ones containing any number of metals. The gold in solution was recovered with the technology portrayed earlier in the paper and the arsenic was precipitated and stabilized with iron after oxidation of the alkaline waste solutions. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached Pb,% 0.0 2.5 Sb,% 89.0 As,% 96.0. Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, 4. Naub. Reddy, W. P. Imrie, P.B. The Roznava district in Slovakia has long been known for its copper, silver and antimony bearing tetrahedrite ores.. Mercury is also found in conjunction with this ore complicating the processing. As well, the conventional method of direct collection of gold by activated carbon does not work in these solutions as it does for gold cyanide solutions. Is it normal to have the medicine come out your nose after a tonsillectomy? Copper Enargite Concentrate Head Sample Assay Cu, % 30.1 As, % Sb, % Au, g/T 10.7 1.2 35.1, Table XIV. Leach Testing Conditions Leach Time = 6 Hr. Alkaline Sulfide Leach Head Solution Assay Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 mg/L Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 mg/L Sn 1.84 g/L, Table V. Alkaline Sulfide Solution Final Assay Volume, L 0.5 Au 14.4 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T Table VI. Again arsenic has An example of hydrometallurgical treatment of this arsenic trioxide bearing materials follows: Table VII. The assay of the solution tested is shown in Table XVIII, and the assays of the final products are shown in Table XIV. Anderson, C. G. and Krys, L. E., "Leaching of Antimony from a Refractory Precious Metals Concentrate", Proceedings Of The Fourth International Symposium On Hydrometallurgy (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993). Na3AsS4 + 2 O2 2 O2 + Na2S 3.5 O2 + 2NaOH + Na2S2 8 O2 + 8NaOH + Na2S5 Na3AsO4 Na2SO4 2Na2SO4 + H2O 5Na2SO4 + 4H2O (9) (10) (11) (12), This versatile and environmentally benign chemical may then be sold to and utilized in industries such as pulp and paper, glass, ceramics, detergents, textile dyes, mineral feed supplements, bleach and photography. These conditions and results are reflective of closed cycle testing of the system that includes extensive recycling of solutions depleted after antimony recovery. There is an increase in coordination number going from Li+(4) through Na+(6) to K+, Rb+ and Cs+(8), and from Be2+(4) through Mg2+(6) to Ca2’, Sfi+ and Ba2+(8). As an example, when the system is applied to an arsenic containing material like orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. Irkutsk. Figure 1. 12. Lead Smelter Speiss Head Sample Assay Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au g/T, Ag, g/T 43.5 1.4 0.5 0.1 12.2 3.3 14.8 1.7 0.9 45.0 9000 Table II. As such, there are minimal environmental or toxicological issues in the use of alkaline sulfide gold recovery as the waste products become value added, marketable by-products. Table XVI. SSR, 6 (1963) 77-90. 1. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Total Sulfur Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 25 g/L Table III. Reddy, J.L. Met^l, 9 (1961), 2Q4-B. Leach Testing Conditions. 16. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table IX. Drake and J.W. For example mercury will be precipitated in conjunction with by-product sodium hydroxyantimonate production by pressure oxidation as follows; 2Na2HgS2 + H2O + O2 2HgS + Na2S2O3 + 2NaOH NaSb(OH)6 + 2Na2S2O3 (17) (18). Leach Test Results. Figure 1 illustrates the equilibrium diagram for sulfur while Figure 2 illustrates the more commonly encountered meta-stable sulfur diagram. This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing these impurities. Sodium ortho-arsenite, although the name is often shortened to This oxidation process has been practiced in industry (19). It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L Table XII. Corby Anderson - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. 3. Mining J. The reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S Na3AsS3 NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH (3) (4) Nauch Tr. Queneau, Phoenix, Arizona, 1988. Worldwide, it is employed industrially in the CIS, China and the United States for the production of antimony. Anderson, C. G., et. 9. 5,290,338, March 1, 1994. An example of the application of the alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgical treatment follows. Where can i find the fuse relay layout for a 1990 vw vanagon or any vw vanagon for the matter? C.G. The details of this process will be given in future publications and may be illustrated as follows: Na2SO4 + 2H2O 2.3 H2SO4 + 2NaOH (15), Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Smelter Copper Dross Flue Dust The formation of arsenic and antimony laden dusts in the processing of lead is commonly encountered. Leach Testing Conditions Leach Time = 1 Hr. Table I. Anderson, "Industrial Nitrogen Species Catalyzed Pressure Leaching and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Recovery from Refractory Gold Concentrates", Precious Metals 2001, 25th Annual IPMI Meeting, Tucson, Arizona, June 2001. Modrow and G.K. Roset, "Adaption of Dilute Mold Lime Dual Alkali Scrubbing at Stillwater Mining Company's PGM Smelter", Hydrometallurgy 2003, Vancouver, B.C. Due to the selective oxidation of As and S in the IAL process, the As is almost oxidized completely. Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Antimony and Mercury Leaching As a further example of the flexability of the alkaline sulfide leaching technology the following summary of the Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing (CAMP) is presented below. 62. Also the waste alkaline sulfide solutions can be recycled for further gold leaching or further processed with low temperature oxidation to sodium sulfate, Na2SO4. al., "Antimony Separation Process", U.S. Patent No. N- atom belongs to 15th group in the periodic table, therefore as per rule, its oxidation number may vary from 3 Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Assay. sodium polysulfide (Na2SX) and sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) are created along with sulfide. This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ? Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Metallurgical Society of AIME and the CIMM, TMS-AIME Fall Extractive Meeting, San Diego CA, Nov. 10-13 1985, p. 197-219. It contains the AsO33- ion ortho-arsenite ion. The further treatment of the leach solutions is described elsewhere. Lead Softening Skims Head Sample Assay Pb,% 52.9 Sb,% As,% 31.7 3.3, Table XI. This also oxidizes the arsenic to soluble sodium arsenate which can then be precipitated by conventional means using iron compounds. They also offer a number of advantages for crystal growth, and provide a medium for the synthesis of solids 150 G.W. This can be illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2) When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, the reaction is as follows: 1.5 H2O + 2 Na2S + ½ As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH Na3AsS3 (3) (4) Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. The resultant sodium sulfate, after arsenic removal, is further treated by purification and crystallization to produce high grade, marketable sodium sulfate. As shown in Figure 3, gold is soluble in the alkaline sulfide system. As2O3 NaAsS2 + Na2S NaAsS2 + 3 NaOH Na3AsS3 (3) (4) Dissolution of elemental sulfur in sodium hydroxide is also used as a lixiviant for alkaline sulfide leaching of arsenic. This is a unique hydrometallurgical system as it is a very selective lixiviant for the distinct leaching of tin, gold, antimony, arsenic and mercury (1,2,3,4,5,6,7). Volume L 0.5 Au 88.7 ppm Sb 21.0 g/L As 5.31 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.84 g/L, Table XIV. Several other applications of the alkaline sulphide leach treatment can be obtained by contacted one of the authors. 20. J. Kaloc, et al., "Alkaline leaching of tetrahedrite concentrates", Hutn. C.G. Table X. This has resulted in long term existing environmental impacts in the region. (c) Aluminium always has +3 oxidation number Note : Metal may have negative or zero oxidation number Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero 0 0 0 0 e.g. A proprietary gold recovery process has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions containing a mixture of metals such as arsenic, tin, mercury and antimony. Z2 (9) (1967). Leach Time = 12 Hr. Which reaction involves neither oxidation nor reduction? (D)has eight valence electrons. Also, due to space constraints, only the leach results for a series of lead smelter products will be shown in this paper. 3. Our content is added by our users. Queneau (San Diego, CA: AIME-TMS, 1992), 349-366. Gold lixiviation is the result of leaching by polysulfides and sulfides as shown in equation 8. Met. This more accurately reflects plant conditions. R.R Lunt, D.K. 2.1 Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Smelter Speiss The formation of speiss in lead smelters is a common occurrence and poses process problems in that significant levels of precious metals are accumulated in the resultant arsenides and antimonides. All Rights Reserved. Percent Solids = 25% Leach Temperature = 105O C Sulfide Concentration = 100 g/L Free Hydroxide Concentration = 10 g/L, Table XV. 2 G. F. Gnatyshenko and T. R. Polyvyanni, "Arsenic leaching from Cottrell dusts by sodium sulfide", lav. Applications of Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgy to Arsenic and Antimony Leaching The rest of this paper deals with the specific leaching application of the alkaline sulfide system to arsenic, antimony, and mercury bearing materials. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached In, % 0.0 Pb,% 0.0 Sb,% 95.0 Page 126 As,% 99.0 Zn,% 0.0, Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Lead Softening Skims, The formation of arsenic and antimony skims in lead refining is commonly encountered. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. Anderson, E. Dahlgren, M. Jeffrey and D. L. Stacey, Unpublished research, 2004. Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur, The generation of these predominant meta-stable species is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. Equilibrium Species Eh-pH Diagram for Sulfur and Alkaline Sulfide Gold Currently, studies are underway on the actual kinetics and mechanism of the alkaline sulfide system(16,17,18). I. R. Polyvyanni, et al., "Leaching arsenic from arsenic-containing dust by means of sodium sulfide", Tr. The atomic mass of an element is 32.07 u and its atomic number is 16. Table XVIII. P. U. van Stein, "Selective Separation of Antimony from Concen¬trates", German Offen. Leach Time = 6 Hr. M. Jeffrey, and C.G. Table IV. In this case, a high grade, 38% copper concentrate with minimal arsenic was produced for treatment by smelting. The conditions utilized are shown in Table XVII. When did organ music become associated with baseball? Sodium ortho-arsenite, although the name is often shortened to sodium arsenite. But most of S is non-oxidized and remains its primitive phase This is verified by XRD analysis, as shown in stead of at high ones as follows: 3FeAsS+ 9NaOH+ 402= Na3AsS3+ 2Na3As04+ 3Fe( OH) 4FeAsS+ 4FeS2+ 12NaOH+ 302+ 6H20= 4Na3AsS3+ OH) 3 SSR. 6. Gos. The superheated fluids have a number of unusual properties which render them different from the normal liquid phase. 3 5 ClOK , 3 5 OHI , 4 7 OHCI , 5 3KBrO Oxidation number of an element in free state or in allotropic forms is always zero e.g. Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery Liquid 1.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Solid 98.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%, The proprietary substrate solids which have been employed to load the gold consist of several cheap and readily available materials and direct processing of the material is probably the cheapest and most effective method of refining the gold. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. 2.2 Selective Recovery of Gold from Alkaline Sulfide Solutions In the example cited above, it is essential in that any gold leached in the alkaline sulfide solutions be recovered. This is illustrated as: Na2S + As2S3 NaAsS2 + Na2S 2NaAsS2 Na3AsS3 (1) (2), When applied to arsenic trioxide, As2O3, sodium arsenite is also formed. sodium arsenite. Home; chemistry of main elements.pdf; chemistry of main elements.pdf. This is as follows: 2Na2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 CaSO4 + 2NaOH (14), The clean gypsum product can then be marketed and used in such applications as agricultural soil amendments or as an additive in primary cement manufacture. (B) Formation of water by action of sodium hydroxide and nitric acid. The alkaline sulfide system is one of these and is essentially a mixture of sodium sulfide and sodium hydroxide. May 13, 2018 | Author: achmadroybiabbas | Category: Solvation, Hydrogen, Ion, Nitrogen, Solubility 2Au + S22- + 2S22AuS- +2S2(8). The gold leached by the alkaline sulfide system is readily recoverable by several means including electrowinning, gaseous precipitation, chemical precipitation, cementation, solvent extraction and ion exchange. e.g. Arsenic has oxidation number +3. 2,020,656 (25 Feb. 1971). 137 (1994) 131 178 Gap Fig. contains a polymeric meta-arsenite ion (AsO2-)n . This process is illustrated simplistically in the following scenario. Volume, L 0.5 Au 1.5 ppm Sb 21.1 g/L As 5.21 g/L Hg 274 ppm Sn 1.89 g/L, Final Au Solid Sorbent Assay = 1561.4 g/T, Table XV. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. 20. 17. The oxidation state is +1 for the alkali metals and +2 for the alkaline earth metals. An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Please use this link to notify us: Report this file as copyright or inappropriate, Notice: fwrite(): send of 201 bytes failed with errno=104 Connection reset by peer in /home/readbag.com/web/sphinxapi.php on line 531. 2. 626-9. A typical flotation concentrate of this type is shown in Table XVI. (1,2,3,4) When the system is applied to orpiment, As2S3, a solution of sodium thioarsenite is formed. Nadkarni, R.M., and Kusik, C.L., "Hydrometallurgical Removal of Arsenic from Copper Concentrates" Arsenic Metallurgy Fundamentals and Applications, Edited by R.G. Kolis/Coord. Figure 3. Qboaashch. lnst._Redk. Listy. The proven techniques and accompanying industrial flowsheets used to recover and stabilize arsenic with, for example, iron from the solutions is beyond the scope of this paper. Conventional methods of gold recovery such as zinc or aluminum cementation are not applicable to this type of solution because of the dangers associated with stibine or arsine gas generation. The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy C G Anderson and L G Twidwell, THE ALKALINE SULFIDE HYDROMETALLURGICAL SEPARATION, RECOVERY AND FIXATION OF TIN, ARSENIC, ANTIMONY, MERCURY AND GOLD. October 2003. (E) is changing its oxidation state in the same manner as … In the past, pyrometallurgical roasting has been utilized to remove antimony, arsenic and mercury from the concentrates and ores. Akad. C.G. Further, a novel gold recovery method has been adopted to quantitatively and selectively recover leached gold from complex alkaline sulfide solutions. The equations that describe the antimony and mercury dissolution are similar to the equations presented above for arsenic and therefore they won't be presented here. Anderson, C. G., Nordwick, S. M., and Krys, L.E., "Processing of Antimony at the Sunshine Mine", Residues and Effluents - Processing and Environmental Considerations, ed. Kaz. W. C. Holmes, "Electrolytic recovery of antimony from Letrahedrite concentrates", U. S. Patent. Anderson. O , S , P , O 2 8 4 3 Sum of the oxidation numbers of atoms of all elements in a molecule is zero. 4. Anderson, "The Chemical Analysis of Industrial Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Processes", The Society of Mineral Analysts and the Canadian Mineral Analysts Annual Meeting, Spokane, Washington, April 2002. % of Metal Leached Cu, % As, % Sb, % Au, % 0.0 99.2 99.7 14.3. Roznava Concentrate = 100 g/L Leach Temperature = 105O C, Sulfur Addition = 20 g/L Sodium Hydroxide = 35 g/L Sb Leached = 95.0 % As Leached = 60.0 % Hg Leached =95.0 % Au Leached = 20.0 % Cu Leached = 0.0 % Ag Leached = 0.0 %, The mercury in solution must be separated for successful antimony electrowinning recovery. An example of hydrometallurgical treatment follows. C.G., "The Industrial Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Mercury Bearing Antimony Ores and Concentrates", TMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, Ca., February, 2003. This is illustrated as follows: Table XIII. Sodium thio-arsenate has been postulated to crystallize from alkaline sulfide leaching solutions upon cooling. Who are the famous writers in region 9 Philippines? C.G. Alkaline Sulfide Hydrometallurgical Treatment of Copper Enargite Concentrates In many parts of the world, enargite, Cu3AsS4, occurs as a primary copper mineral. All of the M2+ions are smaller and considerably less polarizable than the isoelectronic M+ ions. This is illustrated by selectively removing gold from an alkaline sulfide leach solution containing impurities. Overall Gold Selectivity and Recovery. This paper outlines the fundamentals of alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy and its successful application to arsenic, antimony and mercury bearing ores, concentrates, by-products, and other materials. Both. Alkaline sulfide hydrometallurgy can be effective in treating these types of ores and concentrates. This can be done in several ways. Rev. 14. In addition, initial efforts are underway and have been successful in regenerating the necessary H2SO4 and NaOH reagents from the Na2SO4 by-product. The overall results are presented in Table XV. 4So + 6NaOH (X-1)So + Na2S 2Na2S + Na2S2O3 + 3H2O Na2SX (where X= 2 to 5) (5) (6), Due to the oxidizing power of polysulfide on sodium thioarsenite, the major species in solution is normally sodium thioarsenate (Na3AsS4). 11. No. Twidwell Center for Advanced Mineral and Metallurgical Processing Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Butte, Montana USA Abstract Throughout the world, there are many orebodies or materials which have significant value but also contain arsenic, antimony, and mercury. Ahad. Copper Dross Flue Dust Head Sample Assay In, % 0.3 Pb,% 46.0 Sb,% As,% Zn,% 9.0 12.0 11.0, Table VIII. oxidation number of +3. Figure 2: Meta-stable Eh-pH diagram for Sulfur. R.G. Cationic Low Oxidation State Phosphorus and Arsenic Compounds Destabilized LiBH4−NaAlH4 Mixtures Doped with Titanium Based Catalysts Structurally distinct bacterial luciferases Figure 2. Alkaline Sulfide Gold Solution Final Assay. Leach Test Results % of Metal Leached, Cu,% Ni,% Sn,% Cd,% As,% Sb, % Pb,% Fe,% Zn,% Au %, Ag, % 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 99.1 99.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0, As seen, the alkaline sulfide leach was highly selective in removing only antimony, arsenic and some gold to solution. This can be viewed as follows: Na2SX + (X-1)Na3AsS3 (X-1)Na3AsS4 + Na2S (7). Table XVII. Mauk Kaz. Nordwick, S. M. and Anderson, C. G., "Advances In Antimony Electrowinning at the Sunshine Mine", Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Hydrometallurgy, (Salt Lake City, UT, 1993).
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